Aminoglycosides are a subcategory of pharmaceutical active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that play a crucial role in combating bacterial infections. These powerful antibiotics are primarily used to treat severe infections caused by gram-negative bacteria. Aminoglycosides are characterized by their unique chemical structure, consisting of amino sugars and a glycosidic bond.

These antibiotics exert their therapeutic effects by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, leading to the disruption of essential cellular functions in the bacteria. This mechanism of action makes aminoglycosides highly effective against a wide range of bacteria, including those that have developed resistance to other classes of antibiotics.

Key examples of aminoglycosides include gentamicin, amikacin, and tobramycin. These drugs are typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly to ensure optimal absorption and distribution throughout the body. Due to their limited oral bioavailability, aminoglycosides are not commonly administered orally.

Although aminoglycosides possess potent antimicrobial properties, they are associated with some potential adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Regular monitoring of kidney function and therapeutic drug monitoring are often recommended during aminoglycoside therapy to minimize the risk of these complications.

In summary, aminoglycosides are an important subcategory of pharmaceutical APIs that have significant therapeutic value in the treatment of severe bacterial infections. Their unique mechanism of action and broad spectrum of activity make them valuable tools in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

NameCAS number
Gentamycin Sulfate1405-41-0
Kanamycin Acid Sulphate64013-70-3
Kanamycin Mono Sulphate25389-94-0
Neomycin sulfate1405-10-3
Tobramycin Sulfate79654-27-5